Distributed Training with Determined#

This overview demonstrates how to perform optimized distributed training with Determined to speed up the training of a single trial. The first section conceptually describes distributed training and is followed by a section on implementing distributed training.

Concept Overview#

How Determined Distributed Training Works#

Distributed training in Determined utilizes data-parallelism. Data-parallelism for deep-learning consists of a set of workers, where each worker is assigned to a unique compute accelerator such as a GPU or a TPU. Each worker maintains a copy of the model parameters (weights that are being trained), which is synchronized across all the workers at the start of training.

After initialization is completed, distributed training in Determined follows a loop where:

  1. Every worker performs a forward and backward pass on a unique mini-batch of data.

  2. As the result of the backward pass, every worker generates a set of updates to the model parameters based on the data it processed.

  3. The workers communicate their updates to each other, so that all the workers see all the updates made during that batch.

  4. Every worker averages the updates by the number of workers.

  5. Every worker applies the updates to its copy of the model parameters, resulting in all the workers having identical solution states.

  6. Return to the first step.

Reduce Computation and Communication Overhead#

Of the steps involved in the distributed training loop in Determined, which are described above, step 1 and step 2 introduce the majority of the computational overhead. To reduce computational overhead, it’s recommended that users maximize the utilization of their GPU. This is typically done by using the largest batch size that fits into memory. When performing distributed training, to reduce the computational overhead it’s recommended to set the global_batch_size to the largest batch size that fits into a single GPU * number of slots. This is commonly referred to as weak scaling.

Step 3 of the distributed training loop in Determined introduces the majority of the communication overhead. Because deep learning models typically perform dense updates, where every model parameter is updated for every training sample, batch_size does not affect how long it takes workers to communicate updates. However, increasing global_batch_size does reduce the required number of passes through the training loop, thus reducing the total communication overhead.

Determined optimizes the communication in step 3 by using an efficient form of ring all-reduce, which minimizes the amount of communication necessary for all the workers to communicate their updates. Determined also reduces the communication overhead by overlapping computation (step 1 & step 2) and communication (step 3) by communicating updates for deeper layers concurrently with computing updates for the shallower layers. The Distributed Training with Determined document covers additional optimizations available in Determined for reducing the communication overhead.

How to Train Effectively with Large Batch Sizes#

To improve the performance of distributed training, we recommend using the largest possible global_batch_size, setting it to be largest batch size that fits into a single GPU * number of slots. However, training with a large global_batch_size can have adverse effects on the convergence (accuracy) of the model. At Determined AI we have found several effective techniques for training with large batch sizes:

  • Starting with the original learning rate used for a single GPU and gradually increasing it to number of slots * original learning rate throughout the first several epochs. For more details, see Accurate, Large Minibatch SGD: Training ImageNet in 1 Hour.

  • Using custom optimizers designed for large batch training, such as RAdam, LARS, or LAMB. We have found RAdam especially effective.

These techniques often require hyperparameter modifications. To automate this process, we encourage users to utilize the Hyperparameter Tuning capabilities in Determined.

Model Characteristics that Affect Performance#

Deep learning models typically perform dense updates, where every model parameter is updated for every training sample. Because of this, the amount of communication per mini-batch (step 3 in the distributed training loop) is dependent on the number of model parameters. Models that have fewer parameters such as ResNet-50 (~30 million parameters) train more efficiently in distributed settings than models with more parameters such as VGG-16 (~136 million parameters). If planning to utilize distributed training, we encourage users to be mindful of their model size when designing models.

Debug Performance Bottlenecks#

When scaling up distributed training, it’s fairly common to see non-linear speedup when scaling from one machine to two machines as intra-machine communication (e.g., NVLink) is often significantly faster than inter-machine communication. Scaling up beyond two machines often provides close to linear speed-up, but it does vary depending on the model characteristics. If observing unexpected scaling performance, assuming you have scaled your global_batch_size proportionally with slots_per_trial, it’s possible that training performance is being bottlenecked by network communication or disk I/O.

To check if your training is bottlenecked by communication, we suggest setting optimizations.aggregation_frequency in the Experiment Configuration Reference to a very large number (e.g., 1000). This setting results in communicating updates once every 1000 batches. Comparing throughput with aggregation_frequency of 1 vs. aggregation_frequency of 1000 will demonstrate the communication overhead. If you do observe significant communication overhead, refer to Distributed Training with Determined for guidance on how to optimize communication.

To check if your training is bottlenecked by I/O, we encourage users to experiment with using synthetic datasets. If you observe that I/O is a significant bottleneck, we suggest optimizing the data input pipeline to the model (e.g., copy training data to local SSDs).


Determined aims to support reproducible machine learning experiments: that is, the result of running a Determined experiment should be deterministic, so that rerunning a previous experiment should produce an identical model. For example, this ensures that if the model produced from an experiment is ever lost, it can be recovered by rerunning the experiment that produced it.


The current version of Determined provides limited support for reproducibility; unfortunately, the current state of the hardware and software stack typically used for deep learning makes perfect reproducibility very challenging.

Determined can control and reproduce the following sources of randomness:

  • Hyperparameter sampling decisions.

  • The initial weights for a given hyperparameter configuration.

  • Shuffling of training data in a trial.

  • Dropout or other random layers.

Determined currently does not offer support for controlling non-determinism in floating-point operations. Modern deep learning frameworks typically implement training using floating point operations that result in non-deterministic results, particularly on GPUs. If only CPUs are used for training, reproducible results can be achieved, as described in the following sections.

Random Seeds#

Each Determined experiment is associated with an experiment seed: an integer ranging from 0 to 231–1. The experiment seed can be set using the reproducibility.experiment_seed field of the experiment configuration. If an experiment seed is not explicitly specified, the master will assign one automatically.

The experiment seed is used as a source of randomness for any hyperparameter sampling procedures. The experiment seed is also used to generate a trial seed for every trial associated with the experiment.

In the Trial interface, the trial seed is accessible within the trial class using self.ctx.get_trial_seed().

Coding Guidelines#

To achieve reproducible initial conditions in an experiment, please follow these guidelines:

  • Use the np.random or random APIs for random procedures, such as shuffling of data. Both PRNGs will be initialized with the trial seed by Determined automatically.

  • Use the trial seed to seed any randomized operations (e.g., initializers, dropout) in your framework of choice. For example, Keras initializers accept an optional seed parameter. Again, it is not necessary to set any graph-level PRNGs (e.g., TensorFlow’s tf.set_random_seed), as Determined manages this for you.

Deterministic Floating Point on CPUs#

When doing CPU-only training with TensorFlow, it is possible to achieve floating-point reproducibility throughout optimization. If using the TFKerasTrial API, implement the optional session_config() method to override the default session configuration:

def session_config(self) -> tf.ConfigProto:
    return tf.ConfigProto(
        intra_op_parallelism_threads=1, inter_op_parallelism_threads=1


Disabling thread parallelism may negatively affect performance. Only enable this feature if you understand and accept this trade-off.

Pause Experiments#

TensorFlow does not fully support the extraction or restoration of a single, global RNG state. Consequently, pausing experiments that use a TensorFlow-based framework may introduce an additional source of entropy.

Optimize Training#

When optimizing the training speed of a model, the first step is to understand where and why training is slow. Once the bottlenecks have been identified, the next step is to do further investigation and experimentation to alleviate those bottlenecks.

To understand the performance profile of a training job, the training code and infrastructure need to be instrumented. There are many different layers that can be instrumented, from raw throughput all the way down to GPU kernels.

Determined provides two tools out-of-the-box for instrumenting training:

  • System Metrics: measurements of hardware usage

  • Timings: durations of actions taken during training, such as dataloading

System Metrics are useful to see if the software is taking full advantage of the available hardware, particularly around GPU usage, dataloading, and network communication during distributed training. Timings are useful for identifying the section of code to focus on for optimizations. Most commonly, Timings help answer the question of whether the dataloader is the main bottleneck in training.

System Metrics#

System Metrics are statistics around hardware usage, such as GPU utilization and network throughput. These metrics are useful for seeing whether training is using the hardware effectively. When the System Metrics reported for an experiment are below what is expected from the hardware, that is a sign that the software may be able to be optimized to make better use of the hardware resources.

Specifically, Determined tracks:

  • GPU utilization

  • GPU free memory

  • Network throughput (sent)

  • Network throughput (received)

  • Disk IOPS

  • Disk throughput (read)

  • Disk throughput (write)

  • Host available memory

  • CPU utilization averaged across cores

For distributed training, these metrics are collected for every agent. The data are broken down by agent, and GPU metrics can be further broken down by GPU.


System Metrics record agent-level metrics, so when there are multiple experiments on the same agent, it is difficult to analyze. We suggest that profiling is done with only a single experiment per agent.


The other type of profiling metric that Determined tracks is Timings. Timings are measurements of how long specific training events take. Examples of training events include retrieving data from the dataloader, moving data between host and device, running the forward/backward pass, and executing callbacks.


Timings are currently only supported for PyTorchTrial.

These measurements provide a high-level picture of where to focus optimization efforts. Specifically, Determined tracks the following Timings:

  • dataloader_next: time to retrieve the next item from the dataloader

  • to_device: time to transfer input from host to device

  • train_batch: how long the user-defined train_batch function takes to execute*

  • step_lr_schedulers: amount time taken to update the LR schedules

  • from_device: time to transfer output from device to host

  • reduce_metrics: time taken to calculate global metrics in distributed training

* train_batch is typically the forward pass and the backward pass, but it is a user-defined function so it could include other steps.

Introduction to Implementing Distributed Training#


Multi-machine training requires that all machines can connect directly. There may be firewall rules or network configuration that prevent machines in your cluster from communicating. Please check that agent machines can access each other outside of Determined by using ping or netcat tools.

More rarely, if agents have multiple network interfaces and some of them are not routable, Determined may pick one of those interfaces rather than one that allows one agent to contact another. In this case, it is possible to explicitly set the network interface used for distributed training, as described in Step 7 - Configure the Cluster.


Slots Per Trial#

In the Experiment Configuration Reference, the resources.slots_per_trial field controls the number of GPUs used to train a single trial.

The default value is 1, which disables distributed training. Setting slots_per_trial to a larger value enables multi-GPU training automatically. Note that these GPUs might be on a single machine or across multiple machines; the experiment configuration simply defines how many GPUs should be used for training, and the Determined job scheduler decides whether to schedule the task on a single agent or multiple agents, depending on the machines in the cluster and the other active workloads.

Multi-machine parallelism offers the ability to further parallelize training across more GPUs. To use multi-machine parallelism, set slots_per_trial to be a multiple of the total number of GPUs on an agent machine. For example, if your resource pool consists of multiple 8-GPU agent machines, valid values for slots_per_trial would be 16, 24, 32, etc. In this configuration, trials use all the resources of multiple machines to train a model:

  slots_per_trial: 16  # Two 8-GPU agent machines will be used in a trial

For distributed multi-machine training, Determined automatically detects a common network interface shared by the agent machines. If your cluster has multiple common network interfaces, please specify the fastest one in Step 7 - Configure the Cluster under task_container_defaults.dtrain_network_interface.

When the slots_per_trial field is set, the per-slot (i.e., per-GPU) batch size is set to global_batch_size // slots_per_trial. The per-slot and global batch sizes should be accessed via the context using context.get_per_slot_batch_size() and context.get_global_batch_size(), respectively. If global_batch_size is not evenly divisible by slots_per_trial, the remainder is dropped.

If slots_per_trial is greater than the number of slots on a single agent, Determined schedules it over multiple machines. When scheduling a multi-machine distributed training job, Determined requires that the job uses all of the slots (GPUs) on an agent. For example, in a cluster that consists of 8-GPU agents, an experiment with slots_per_trial set to 12 is never scheduled and will wait indefinitely. The section on Scheduling Behavior describes this in more detail.

There might also be running tasks preventing your multi-GPU trials from acquiring enough GPUs on a single machine. Consider adjusting slots_per_trial or terminating existing tasks to free slots in your cluster.

Global Batch Size#

When doing distributed training, the global_batch_size specified in the Experiment Configuration Reference is partitioned across slots_per_trial GPUs. The per-GPU batch size is set to: global_batch_size // slots_per_trial. If slots_per_trial does not divide global_batch_size evenly, the remainder is dropped. For convenience, the per-GPU batch size can be accessed via the Trial API, using context.get_per_slot_batch_size.

For improved performance, weak-scaling is recommended. That is, increasing your global_batch_size proportionally with slots_per_trial. For example, change global_batch_size and slots_per_trial from 32 and 1 to 128 and 4.

Adjusting global_batch_size can affect your model convergence, which can affect your training and/or testing accuracy. You may need to adjust model hyperparameters like the learning rate and/or use a different optimizer when training with larger batch sizes.

Advanced Optimizations#

Determined supports several optimizations to further reduce training time. These optimizations are available in Experiment Configuration Reference under optimizations.

  • optimizations.aggregation_frequency controls how many batches are evaluated before exchanging gradients. It is helpful in situations where it is not possible to increase the batch size directly, for example, due to GPU memory limitations). This optimization increases your effective batch size to aggregation_frequency * global_batch_size.

  • optimizations.gradient_compression reduces the time it takes to transfer gradients between GPUs.

  • optimizations.auto_tune_tensor_fusion automatically identifies the optimal message size during gradient transfers, reducing communication overhead.

  • optimizations.average_training_metrics averages the training metrics across GPUs at the end of every training workload, which requires communication. average_training_metrics is set to true by default. This typically does not have a major impact on training performance, but if you have a very small scheduling_unit, disabling this option may improve performance. When disabled, only the training metrics from the chief GPU are reported. This impacts results shown in the WebUI and TensorBoard but does not influence model behavior or hyperparameter search.

If you do not see improved performance using distributed training, there might be a performance bottleneck in the model that cannot be directly alleviated by using multiple GPUs, such as with data loading. You are encouraged to experiment with a synthetic dataset to verify the performance of multi-GPU training.


Multi-machine distributed training is designed to maximize performance by training with all the resources of a machine. This can lead to situations where an experiment is created but never becomes active: if the number of GPUs requested does not divide into the machines available, for instance, or if another experiment is already using some GPUs on a machine.

If an experiment does not become active after a minute or so, please confirm that slots_per_trial is a multiple of the number of GPUs available on a machine. You can also use the CLI command det task list to check if any other tasks are using GPUs and preventing your experiment from using all the GPUs on a machine.

Downloading Data#

When performing distributed training, Determined automatically creates one process for every GPU that is being used for training. Each process attempts to download training and/or validation data, so care should be taken to ensure that concurrent data downloads do not conflict with one another. One way to do this is to include a unique identifier in the local file system path where the downloaded data is stored. A convenient identifier is the rank of the current process: the process rank is automatically assigned by Determined and is unique among all trial processes.

You can do this by leveraging the self.context.distributed.get_rank() function. Below is an example of how to do this when downloading data from S3. In this example, the S3 bucket name is configured via a field data.bucket in the experiment configuration.

import boto3
import os

def download_data_from_s3(self):
    s3_bucket = self.context.get_data_config()["bucket"]
    download_directory = f"/tmp/data-rank{self.context.distributed.get_rank()}"
    data_file = "data.csv"

    s3 = boto3.client("s3")
    os.makedirs(download_directory, exist_ok=True)
    filepath = os.path.join(download_directory, data_file)
    if not os.path.exists(filepath):
        s3.download_file(s3_bucket, data_file, filepath)
    return download_directory

Scheduling Behavior#

The Determined master takes care of scheduling distributed training jobs automatically, ensuring that all of the compute resources required for a job are available before the job itself is launched. Users should be aware of the following details about scheduler behavior when using distributed training:

  • If slots_per_trial is smaller than or equal to the number of slots on a single agent, Determined considers scheduling multiple distributed training jobs on a single agent. This is designed to improve utilization and to allow multiple small training jobs to run on a single agent. For example, an agent with eight GPUs could be assigned two 4-GPU jobs or four 2-GPU jobs.

  • Otherwise, if slots_per_trial is greater than the number of slots on a single agent, Determined schedules the distributed training job onto multiple agents. A multi-machine distributed training job is only scheduled onto an agent if this results in utilizing all of the agent GPUs. This is to ensure good performance and utilize the full network bandwidth of each machine while minimizing inter-machine networking. For example, if all of the agents in your cluster have eight GPUs each , you should submit jobs with slots_per_trial set to a multiple of eight, such as 8, 16, or 24.


If the scheduling constraints for multi-machine distributed training described above are not satisfied, distributed training jobs are not scheduled and wait indefinitely. For example, if every agent in the cluster has eight GPUs, a job with slots_per_trial set to 12 is never scheduled.

If a multi-GPU experiment does not become active after a minute or so, please confirm that slots_per_trial is set so that it can be scheduled within these constraints. The CLI command det task list can also be used to check if any other tasks are using GPUs and preventing your experiment from using all the GPUs on a machine.

Distributed Inference#

PyTorch users can also use the existing distributed training workflow with PyTorchTrial to accelerate their inference workloads. This workflow is not yet officially supported, so users must specify certain training-specific artifacts that are not used for inference. To run a distributed batch inference job, create a new PyTorchTrial and follow these steps:

  • Load the trained model and build the inference dataset using build_validation_data_loader().

  • Specify the inference step using evaluate_batch() or evaluate_full_dataset().

  • Register a dummy optimizer.

  • Specify a build_training_data_loader() that returns a dummy dataloader.

  • Specify a no-op train_batch() that returns an empty map of metrics.

Once the new PyTorchTrial object is created, use the experiment configuration to distribute inference in the same way as training. cifar10_pytorch_inference is an example of distributed batch inference.

Configuration Templates#

At a typical organization, many Determined configuration files will contain similar settings. For example, all of the training workloads run at a given organization might use the same checkpoint storage configuration. One way to reduce this redundancy is to use configuration templates. With this feature, users can move settings that are shared by many experiments into a single YAML file that can then be referenced by configurations that require those settings.

Each configuration template has a unique name and is stored by the Determined master. If a configuration specifies a template, the effective configuration of the task will be the result of merging the two YAML files (configuration file and template). The semantics of this merge operation is described below. Determined stores this effective configuration so that future changes to a template will not affect the reproducibility of experiments that used a previous version of the configuration template.

A single configuration file can use at most one configuration template. A configuration template cannot itself use another configuration template.

Using Templates to Simplify Experiment Configurations#

An experiment can use a configuration template by using the --template command-line option to specify the name of the desired template.

Here is an example demonstrating how an experiment configuration can be split into a reusable template and a simplified configuration.

Consider the experiment configuration below:

name: mnist_tf_const
  type: s3
  access_key: my-access-key
  secret_key: my-secret-key
  bucket: my-bucket-name
  base_url: https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/determined-ai-datasets/mnist/
  training_data: train-images-idx3-ubyte.gz
  training_labels: train-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz
  validation_set_size: 10000
  base_learning_rate: 0.001
  weight_cost: 0.0001
  global_batch_size: 64
  n_filters1: 40
  n_filters2: 40
  name: single
  metric: error
    batches: 500
  smaller_is_better: true

You may find that the values for the checkpoint_storage field are the same for many experiments and you want to use a configuration template to reduce the redundancy. You might write a template like the following:

description: template-tf-gpu
  type: s3
  access_key: my-access-key
  secret_key: my-secret-key
  bucket: my-bucket-name

Then the experiment configuration for this experiment can be written as below:

description: mnist_tf_const
  base_url: https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/determined-ai-datasets/mnist/
  training_data: train-images-idx3-ubyte.gz
  training_labels: train-labels-idx1-ubyte.gz
  validation_set_size: 10000
  base_learning_rate: 0.001
  weight_cost: 0.0001
  global_batch_size: 64
  n_filters1: 40
  n_filters2: 40
  name: single
  metric: error
    batches: 500
  smaller_is_better: true

To launch the experiment with the template:

$ det experiment create --template template-tf-gpu mnist_tf_const.yaml <model_code>

Using the CLI to Work with Templates#

The Determined command-line interface can be used to list, create, update, and delete configuration templates. This functionality can be accessed through the det template sub-command. This command can be abbreviated as det tpl.

To list all the templates stored in Determined, use det template list. You can also use the -d or --detail option to show additional details.

$ det tpl list

To create or update a template, use det tpl set template_name template_file.

$ cat > template-s3-keras-gpu.yaml << EOL
description: template-s3-keras-gpu
  type: s3
  access_key: my-access-key
  secret_key: my-secret-key
  bucket: my-bucket-name
$ det tpl set template-s3-keras-gpu template-s3-keras-gpu.yaml
Set template template-s3-keras-gpu

Merge Behavior#

Suppose we have a template that specifies top-level fields a and b and a configuration that specifies fields b and c. The merged configuration will have fields a, b, and c. The value for field a will simply be the value set in the template. Likewise, the value for field c will be whatever was specified in the configuration. The final value for field b, however, depends on the value’s type:

  • If the field specifies a scalar value, the merged value will be the one specified by the configuration (the configuration overrides the template).

  • If the field specifies a list value, the merged value will be the concatenation of the list specified in the template and that specified in the configuration.

    Note that there are exceptions to this rule for bind_mounts and resources.devices. It may be the case that the both the original config and the template will attempt to mount to the same container_path, which would result in an unstable config. In those situations, the original config is preferred, and the conflicting bind mount or device from the template is omitted in the merged result.

  • If the field specifies an object value, the resulting value will be the object generated by recursively applying this merging algorithm to both objects.